YEAR 11 PAPER 1 END SEMESTER 1 2021

Created 171 days ago
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Read Text A, and then answer Questions 1(a)–1(e) on the question paper. Text A: Project Mammoth This text is an article about a new scientific project. Of all the incredible possibilities presented by controversial new scientific techniques, perhaps the most intriguing are efforts to bring animals back from extinction. Candidates for ‘de-extinction’, as the process is known, include species like the passenger pigeon (the last one died in captivity in 1914) and the dodo (last seen in 1662). These projects are not just distant dreams. Scientists working on such projects estimate that a variation of the first new woolly mammoth (which disappeared some 4 000 years ago) may soon be born. They hope these animals will play a role in slowing or reversing the effects of climate change. The basic idea behind how it would work is that scientists would first retrieve DNA from the remains of a woolly mammoth that had been preserved for centuries in the frozen tundra1 and use that to alter the DNA of modern Asian elephants. According to scientists, the two species are so closely related that if mammoths were alive today they could successfully breed with elephants. Tweaking the Asian elephants’ DNA to more closely resemble that of their ancient relatives could mean elephants might be able to give birth to a furrier, fattier hybrid. Scientists say this work is decidedly not about creating Mammoth Park – the creature would not be a perfect copy of a mammoth anyway. The hope is that these mammoth-like Asian elephants will be more resistant to cold and will repopulate the tundra and coniferous forest in Eurasia and North America. Scientists feel that this will help to protect endangered Asian elephants and revive an ancient grassland in the tundra, which could prevent the melting of Siberia’s permafrost. The project is not without its critics who claim the idea is no more than a gimmick, seducing

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