# Math7 Q2 Mod1

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7 Mathematics Quarter 2 – Module 1: Approximating Measurement CO_Q2_Math 7_ Module 1

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Lesson Approximating 1 Measurement Have you ever wondered what the world would be when we use our palm, handspan, and forearm length instead of rulers, measuring tapes, and meter sticks? This module connects us to the history where we don’t have to worry about our physical differences such as sizes of our palm and forearm because the standards are already set. To appreciate more, let us learn together this module. What’s In Let us recall first some important terms of measurement. Rearrange the letters the following highlighted terms and fill in the blanks provided to complete the sentences. 1. To EURSEAM _________________ means to give a particular number to a particular characteristic of a person, an object, or a concept. When measurements are made, they are expressed quantitatively as numbers. 2. The THLEGN _____________________ is the term used for identifying the size of an object by the distance from end to end or commonly referred to as the longest dimension of an object. 3. SAMS ____________________ refers to the amount of matter an object has while 4. HTIWEG __________________ is the gravitational force acting on an object. 5. MVOEUL ___________________ is the amount of space an object occupies. In a container, it is considered to be the capacity of the container. 6. ETIM _____________________ is the ongoing and continuous sequence of events taking place in succession, from past to the present to the future. 7. LENAG ____________________ was derived from the Latin word angulus, which means corner. It is a figure formed when two rays share a common endpoint called the vertex. 8. ERATEMUPTER ______________________ is the measurement of the degree of hotness or coldness of an object or a substance. 9. ERTA __________________ is the ratio between two related quantities in different units. 5 CO_Q2_Math 7_ Module 1

What’s New Activity 1. Let’s do this TOGETHER! Determine the dimension of the following objects at home using only the parts of your arms. Indicate the appropriate part of the arm used for each object. Do this activity with your parent, guardian or sibling. Record the results in the given table below. The first two columns were accomplished as your example. envelop notebook table house Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width What arm part is used?  Palm palm palm  Handspan  Forearm length YOU 6 4 Parent/ Guardian/ 5 3 Sibling Note: Palm – the width of one’s hand excluding the thumb Handspan – the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger of one’s hand with fingers spread apart Forearm length – the length of one’s forearm; the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger 6 CO_Q2_Math 7_ Module 1

What is It How was your experience with the previous activity? Did you find it hard to do actual measurement? Were there any differences in your data and your other family member’s data? What do you think is the cause of those differences? These could explain everything! HISTORY OF MEASUREMENT One of the earliest inventions of human beings was the unit of measurement. In ancient times, people needed measurement to determine how long or wide things are. They need to measure things to build their houses or make their clothes. Later, units of measurement were used in trade and commerce. In the 3rd century BC in Egypt, people used their body parts to determine the measurements of things; the same body parts that you used to measure the assigned things to you in Activity 1. The forearm length was called a cubit. The handspan was considered a half 1 cubit, while the palm was considered of a cubit. The Egyptians came up with these 6 units to be more accurate in measuring different lengths. However, using these units of measurement had a disadvantage. Not everyone had the same forearm length. Discrepancies arose when the people started comparing their measurements to one another because measurements of the same thing differed, depending on who was measuring it. Because of this, these units of measurement are called non-standard units of measurement which later on evolved into what is now the inch, foot and yard, the basic units of length in the English system of measurement. The results of measuring are merely approximations since measurements are not always exact. Oftentimes, there is a relative error involved. Accuracy of measurements depends on two factors: 1. The skill of the person doing the measurement. This can be developed through constant practice. 2. The precision of the instrument used in measuring. This is totally dependent to the measuring device. The English System of Measurement was widely used until the 1800s and the 1900s when the Metric System of Measurement started to gain ground and became the most used system of measurement worldwide. First described by Belgian Mathematician Simon Stevin in his booklet, De Thiende (The Art of Tenths) and proposed by English philosopher, John Wilkins, the Metric System of Measurement was first adopted by France in 1799. In 1875, the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures or CGPM) was tasked to 7 CO_Q2_Math 7_ Module 1

define the different measurements. By 1960, CGPM released the International System of Units (SI) which is now being used by majority of the countries with the biggest exception being the United States of America. Since Philippines used to be a colony of the United States, earlier Filipinos were taught in the use of the English instead of the Metric System of Measurement. Thus, they preferred English System rather than the Metric System although the Philippines have already adopted the Metric System as its official system of measurement. The Metric System of Measurement is easier to use than the English System of Measurement since its conversion factors would consistently be in the decimal system, unlike the English System of Measurement where units of lengths have different conversion factors. The base unit for length is the meter and units longer or shorter than the meter would be achieved by adding prefixes to the base unit. These prefixes may also be used for the base units for mass, volume, time and other measurements. Here are the common prefixes used in the Metric System: PREFIX SYMBOL FACTOR yyota- Y x 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 1024 zeta- Z x 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 1021 exa- E x 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 1018 peta- P x 1 000 000 000 000 000 or 1015 tera- T x 1 000 000 000 000 or 1012 giga- G x 1 000 000 000 or 109 mega- M x 1 000 000 or 106 kilo- k x 1 000 or 103 hecto- h x 100 or 102 deka- da x 10 or 101 deci- d x 1/10 or 10-1 centi- c x 1/100 or 10-2 milli- m x 1/1 000 or 10-3 micro- µ x 1/1 000 000 or 10-6 nano- n x 1/1 000 000 000 or 10-9 pico- p x 1/1 000 000 000 000 or 10-12 femto- f x 1/1 000 000 000 000 000 or 10-15 atto- a x 1/1 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 10-18 zepto- z x 1/1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 10-21 yocto- y x 1/1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 10-24 The seven SI base units are comprised of: QUANTITY BASE UNIT Length meter (m) Time second (s) Amount of Substance mole (mol) Electric current ampere (A) Temperature kelvin (K) Luminous Intensity candela (cd) Mass kilogram (kg) 8 CO_Q2_Math 7_ Module 1