IEC.Pre-Inter.Reading.Table completion

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- Mapping the world (Reading ) 1 Work in pairs. As quickly as you can, find words or phrases in the Reading Passage which have the same meaning as words 1-8 below. iHftiih4ilh 1 advanced 2 natural to 3 makes up 4 main 5 showing 6 linked 7 system 8 development 2 Work in groups. Bring together the information you have about the Reading Passage so far. READING PASSAGE You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on the Reading Passage below. Cartography Cartography, from the Greek word khartes meaning 'map' and graphein meaning 'write', , is a science that is at its simplest level the study and practice of making maps. At a more sophisticated level, it is not just a science, but an art that seeks to give in a simple and beautiful form, to the spatial information in the human environment. Cartography, along with science and aesthetics, obviously involves technical expertise, which has been developing over millennia. Historically, maps have sought to utilise the complex knowledge of the environment, innate in the majority of the human race, to suit the needs of people who seek to use them. Communities living in small groups and not travelling very far have little need of complex maps, while urban dwellers, seafarers or traders operating in a much more complex and/or wider environment need something more sophisticated, either to delineate boundaries and define ownership, or to travel routes beyond the immediate confines of their communities. As humanity's needs have changed and the world they encountered has changed, so have the maps they need to shape or navigate that world. What exactly constitutes a map has made the identification of the first maps not easy. Early dot maps of the night sky from the 17,000 BC have been found in caves at Lascaux in France, but even earlier representations of mountains and routes dated to 25,000 BC have been identified in the Czech Republic. At present-day Catalhuyuk in Anatolia, an aerial map­ like plan of the town has been dated to about 7,000 years BC, while at Valcamonica in the Italian Alps, examples of images date to the 4th millennium BC. 106

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